Influence of severity of illness on the effects of eritoran tetrasodium (E5564) and on other therapies for severe sepsis

Andre C. Kalil, Steven P. Larosa, Jagadish Gogate, Melvyn Lynn, Steven M. Opal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Scopus citations


Disease severity varies widely in patients with severe sepsis. Eritoran tetrasodium (E5564), a TLR4 antagonist, blocks the binding of endotoxin and is being evaluated as a novel therapy for severe sepsis. This analysis aimed to assess the efficacy of eritoran based on severity of illness and similar effects in other recent sepsis trials. Prospective covariates from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial were analyzed for treatment interaction measured by 28-day mortality. Five statistical interaction methodologies were used. The modified intent-to-treat population (n = 292), all-cause 28-day mortality was as follows: placebo, 33.3% (32/96); eritoran 45 mg/105 mg, 29.6% (58/196). Logistic regression analysis identified Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores, predicted-risk-of-mortality scores, IL-6, age, sex, race, and eritoran use as associated with survival. Significant treatment interactions were observed (eritoran vs. placebo) for baseline covariates: Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (P = 0.035), predicted-risk-of-mortality scores (P = 0.008), number of organ failures (P = 0.079), international normalized ratio (P = 0.05), and acute physiology score (P = 0.039). I analysis showed that 38% of the total eritoran treatment variance was explained by the severity-of-illness heterogeneity rather than by chance. No interactions observed with other variables. Consistent with the finding in this eritoran trial, other sepsis trials (IL-1 receptor antagonist, TNFsr-p55, antithrombin, drotrecogin alfa-activated) also demonstrated significant treatment by severity interaction. Potential survival benefits of eritoran in severe sepsis patients were associated with high severity of illness. These findings were used to design a phase 3 trial. Similar treatment by severity-of-illness interaction was found in most recent sepsis trials.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)327-331
Number of pages5
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 2011


  • Eritoran tetrasodium
  • heterogeneity
  • immunomodulating agents
  • severe sepsis
  • severity of illness

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Emergency Medicine
  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine


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