Influence of time of gene microinjection on development and DNA detection frequency in bovine embryos

Rebecca L. Krisher, John R. Gibbons, Rudolfo S. Canseco, John L. Johnson, Christopher G. Russell, D. R. Notter, William H. Velander, F. C. Gwazdauskas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


The effect of DNA microinjection at various times after in vitro insemination on DNA detection and survival rates of bovine embryos was investigated. Oocytes were inseminated 24 h after maturation with frozen/thawed semen prepared with a Percoll separation procedure. At 11, 15 and 19 h after insemination, embryos were centrifuged to visualize pronuclei and microinjected with a murine whey acidic protein-human protein C genomic DNA construct. After culture for 7 days on Buffalo Rat Liver cells, embryos were assessed for stage of development and assayed for the presence of the transgene by polymerase chain reaction. Of zygotes in the 11h after insemination treatment, 16% (25/152) of non-injected and 7% (11/161) of injected embryos developed to the morula or blastocyst stage. Comparable development of non-injected and injected embryos treated at 15h after insemination was 15% (23/158) and 4% (6/159) and treated at 19 h after insemination was 14% (23/162) and 1% (1/165), respectively. Development of injected embryos was greater (p<0.05) when injection was performed at 11 h after insemination compared to 19 h after insemination. Development of non-injected embryos was greater (p<0.01) than that of injected embryos. There was no difference in transgene detection frequency in embryos of all developmental states between treatments (53% at 11; 50% at 15; 48% at 19h after insemination). Injected embryos testing positive for the presence of the transgene exhibited increased development over negative embryos (p<0.01). Greater development efficiencies can be obtained in microinjected bovine embryos when injection is performed early in pronuclear formation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)226-231
Number of pages6
JournalTransgenic Research
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 1994
Externally publishedYes


  • DNA integration
  • PCR
  • micromanipulation
  • transgenics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Agronomy and Crop Science
  • Genetics


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