Informed decision-making on sympathomimetic use in sport and health

Ron Bouchard, Anna R. Weber, Jonathan D. Geiger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

36 Scopus citations


The International Olympic Committee, the World Anti-Doping Agency, and International Sport Federations have banned and restricted the use of many stimulants including prescription and over-the-counter medications and dietary supplements. In addition to elite athletes, people of all ages use stimulants in attempts to improve athletic performance, alter body composition, and increase levels of energy. Here we introduce a seven-stage model designed to facilitate informed decision-making by individuals taking or thinking of taking stimulants for sport, health, and/or appearance reasons. We review for amphetamines, over-the counter sympathomimetics, and caffeine their performance-enhancing and performance-degrading effects, health benefits and mechanisms of action, medical side effects, and legal, ethical, safety, and financial implications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)209-224
Number of pages16
JournalClinical Journal of Sport Medicine
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2002
Externally publishedYes


  • Amphetamine
  • Athletic performance
  • Caffeine
  • Ephedra
  • Ephedrine
  • Exercise
  • Ma Huang
  • Pseudoephedrine
  • Sports

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation


Dive into the research topics of 'Informed decision-making on sympathomimetic use in sport and health'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this