Background: Co-encapsulated antiretrovirals (ARVs) with ingestible sensor (IS) has the capacity to monitor adherence in real-time using a sensor patch, a mobile device, and supporting software. We evaluated the acceptability, effectiveness, and sustainability of the IS system with real-time text reminders. Methods: Participants were recruited from HIV clinics in Los Angeles and were randomised 1:1 to IS or usual care (UC) group. Adherence to ARVs (primary outcome) was measured by IS system (IS group only), plasma ARV concentration, and self-report. IS-measured adherence was clustered by group-based trajectory model and was validated by ARV concentration summarized by integrated pharmacokinetic adherence measure (IPAM) score. HIV RNA viral load (VL) was compared between IS and UC group. Findings: A total of 112 (IS = 54, UC = 58) participants who completed baseline with at least one follow-up data collection were included in analyses. Overall satisfaction rate for the IS system was >90%. The IPAM score was higher (0.018, 95% CI: −0.098–0.134, p = 0.75) and VL decayed faster (−0.020, 95% CI: −0.042–0.002, p = 0.08) in the IS group compared with the UC group. The ingestible sensor system was well tolerated by study participants. Interpretation: The IS system was well accepted by participants and its use was associated with improved adherence and lower HIV RNA VL. The findings provide a potentially effective strategy for improving adherence. Funding: This work was supported by grant R01-MH110056 from the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)/National Institutes of Health (NIH). Y. Wang was in part supported by the NIMH/NIH award T32MH080634. E. Daar was in part supported by the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences through UCLA CTSI Grant UL1TR001881. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the NIH.
- Ingestible sensor
- Viral load
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)