Acetyl-CoA carboxylases (ACC) 1 and 2 catalyze the carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA and depend on biotin as a coenzyme. ACC1 localizes in the cytoplasm and produces malonyl-CoA for fatty acid (FA) synthesis. ACC2 localizes in the outer mitochondrial membrane and produces malonyl-CoA that inhibits FA import into mitochondria for subsequent oxidation. We hypothesized that ACCs are checkpoints in adipocyte differentiation and tested this hypothesis using the ACC1 and ACC2 inhibitor soraphen A (SA) in murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. When 3T3-L1 cells were treated with 100 nM SA for 8 days after induction of differentiation, the expression of PPARγ mRNA and FABP4 mRNA decreased by 40% and 50%, respectively, compared with solvent controls; the decrease in gene expression was accompanied by a decrease in FABP4 protein expression and associated with a decrease in lipid droplet accumulation. The rate of FA oxidation was 300% greater in SA-treated cells compared with vehicle controls. Treatment with exogenous palmitate restored PPARγ and FABP4 mRNA expression and FABP4 protein expression in SA-treated cells. In contrast, SA did not alter lipid accumulation if treatment was initiated on day eight after induction of differentiation. We conclude that loss of ACC1-dependent FA synthesis and loss of ACC2-dependent inhibition of FA oxidation prevent lipid accumulation in adipocytes and inhibit early stages of adipocyte differentiation.
- Acetyl-CoA carboxylase
- Lipid metabolism
- Peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor gamma
- Soraphen A
ASJC Scopus subject areas