Input-output functions for stimulus-frequency otoacoustic emissions in normal-hearing adult ears

Kim S. Schairer, Denis Fitzpatrick, Douglas H. Keefe

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52 Scopus citations


Input-output (I/O) functions for stimulus-frequency (SFOAE) and distortion-product (DPOAE) otoacoustic emissions were recorded in 30 normal-hearing adult ears using a nonlinear residual method. SFOAEs were recorded at half octaves from 500-8000 Hz in an L1 = L2 paradigm with L2 = 0 to 85 dB SPL, and in a paradigm with L1 fixed and L2 varied. DPOAEs were elicited with primary levels of Kummer et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 103, 3431-3444 (1998)] at f2 frequencies of 2000 and 4000 Hz. Interpretable SFOAE responses were obtained from 1000-6000 Hz in the equal-level paradigm. SFOAE levels were larger than DPOAEs levels, signal-to-noise ratios were smaller, and I/O functions were less compressive. A two-slope model of SFOAE I/O functions predicted the low-level round-trip attenuation, the breakpoint between linearity and compression, and compressive slope. In ear but not coupler recordings, the noise at the SFOAE frequency increased with increasing level (above 60 dB SPL), whereas noise at adjacent frequencies did not. This suggests the existence of a source of signal-dependent noise producing cochlear variability, which is predicted to influence basilar-membrane motion and neural responses. A repeatable pattern of notched SFOAE I/O functions was present in some ears, and explained using a two-source mechanism of SFOAE generation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)944-966
Number of pages23
JournalJournal of the Acoustical Society of America
Issue number2
StatePublished - Aug 1 2003

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Acoustics and Ultrasonics


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