Integration of CRISPR/Cas9 with artificial intelligence for improved cancer therapeutics

Ajaz A. Bhat, Sabah Nisar, Soumi Mukherjee, Nirmalya Saha, Nageswari Yarravarapu, Saife N. Lone, Tariq Masoodi, Ravi Chauhan, Selma Maacha, Puneet Bagga, Punita Dhawan, Ammira Al Shabeeb Akil, Wael El-Rifai, Shahab Uddin, Ravinder Reddy, Mayank Singh, Muzafar A Macha, Mohammad Haris

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations

Abstract

Gene editing has great potential in treating diseases caused by well-characterized molecular alterations. The introduction of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9)–based gene-editing tools has substantially improved the precision and efficiency of gene editing. The CRISPR/Cas9 system offers several advantages over the existing gene-editing approaches, such as its ability to target practically any genomic sequence, enabling the rapid development and deployment of novel CRISPR-mediated knock-out/knock-in methods. CRISPR/Cas9 has been widely used to develop cancer models, validate essential genes as druggable targets, study drug-resistance mechanisms, explore gene non-coding areas, and develop biomarkers. CRISPR gene editing can create more-effective chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cells that are durable, cost-effective, and more readily available. However, further research is needed to define the CRISPR/Cas9 system’s pros and cons, establish best practices, and determine social and ethical implications. This review summarizes recent CRISPR/Cas9 developments, particularly in cancer research and immunotherapy, and the potential of CRISPR/Cas9-based screening in developing cancer precision medicine and engineering models for targeted cancer therapy, highlighting the existing challenges and future directions. Lastly, we highlight the role of artificial intelligence in refining the CRISPR system's on-target and off-target effects, a critical factor for the broader application in cancer therapeutics.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number534
JournalJournal of Translational Medicine
Volume20
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2022

Keywords

  • Artificial intelligence
  • CAR T-cells
  • CRISPR/Cas9
  • Cancer Immunotherapy
  • Cancer biomarker
  • Cancer precision medicine
  • Drug resistance
  • Epigenetics
  • Genome engineering

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)

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