Infusion of a simianized anti-α4β7 mAb (Rh-α4β7) just before and following SIV infection protected rhesus macaques from developing AIDS and partially from vaginal SIV acquisition. Recently, short-term treatment with Rh-α4β7 in combination with cART was found to lead to prolonged viral suppression after withdrawal of all therapeutic interventions. The humanized form of Rh-α4β7, vedolizumab, is a highly effective treatment for inflammatory bowel disease. To clarify the mechanism of action of Rh-α4β7, naive macaques were infused with Rh-α4β7 and sampled in blood and tissues before and after treatment to monitor several immune cell subsets. In blood, Rh-α4β7 increased the CD4+ and CD8+ T cell counts, but not B cell counts, and preferentially increased CCR6+ subsets while decreasing CD103+ and CD69+ lymphocytes. In mucosal tissues, surprisingly, Rh-α4β7 did not impact integrin α4+ cells, but decreased the frequencies of CCR6+ and CD69+ CD4+ T cells and, in the gut, Rh-α4β7 transiently decreased the frequency of memory and IgA+ B cells. In summary, even in the absence of inflammation, Rh-α4β7 impacted selected immune cell subsets in different tissues. These data provide new insights into the mechanisms by which Rh-α4β7 may mediate its effect in SIV-infected macaques with implications for understanding the effect of treatment with vedolizumab in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy