Intensive Referral of Veterans to Mutual-Help Groups: A Mixed-Methods Implementation Evaluation

Lance Brendan Young, Kathleen M. Grant, R. Dario Pulido, Jamie L. Simpson, Kimberly A. Tyler, Christine Timko

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Community-based support group participation protects against substance use disorder (SUD) relapse, but referrals during treatment are inconsistently delivered and may not acknowledge barriers facing rural patients. This formative evaluation of a rural intensive referral intervention (RAIR) to community-based support groups for Veterans seeking SUD treatment surveyed patients (n = 145) and surveyed and interviewed treatment staff (n = 28). Patients and staff did not differ significantly on quantitative ratings of the helpfulness of, or satisfaction with, seven RAIR components, but staff did not deliver the intervention consistently or as designed, citing two themes: lack of commitment and lack of resources.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)179-201
Number of pages23
JournalAlcoholism Treatment Quarterly
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 3 2018


  • Substance use disorder
  • Veteran
  • access to care
  • alcoholics anonymous
  • mutual-help
  • qualitative
  • relapse
  • rural
  • self-help
  • social support

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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