Interference effects in the memory for serially presented locations in clark's nutcrackers, Nucifraga columbiana

Jody L. Lewis, Alan C. Kamil

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


The authors tested the spatial memory of serially presented locations in Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana). Birds were serially presented with locations in an open room. The authors buried a seed in a sand-filled cup at each location and then tested nutcrackers for their memory for each location in the list by using the cluster method. For each item in the list, the authors opened a cluster of 6 holes. Accuracy was measured by how many tries were required for the bird to find the correct location within each cluster. In Experiments 1 and 2, the authors presented 2 lists of locations and found evidence for proactive and retroactive interference. Nutcrackers made errors by visiting the interfering list of locations during recovery of the target list. This finding demonstrates that nutcrackers are susceptible to proactive and retroactive interference during the recall of spatial information. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)407-418
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 2006
Externally publishedYes


  • Clark's nutcrackers
  • Nucifraga columbiana
  • Proactive interference
  • Retroactive interference
  • Spatial memory

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology


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