Giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone is a progressive, potentially malignant process that destroys skeletal tissue. It consists of multinucleated giant cells, which are hypothesized to be derived from a monocyte/macrophage lineage and mononuclear stromal cells, and the precise relationship of these cells is not fully understood. Recently, we demonstrated that the production of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in GCT stromal cells is regulated by certain factor(s) secreted by the multinucleated giant cells. In the present study, we evaluated for the presence of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and attempted to establish its possible role for the induction of MMP-9 in GCT stromal cells. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), we have demonstrated that the primary GCT cultures secrete both IL-1β and MMP-9. The addition of monoclonal antibody (mAb) against IL-1β partially abrogated, but did not abolish, MMP-9 expression. Our results on gelatin zymography, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and immunofluorescence showed that GCT stromal cells did not express MMP-9, although treatment with IL-1β induced MMP-9 expression in a dose-dependent manner, and the secretion peaked 24 h after stimulation and then plateaued. Studies with cycloheximide, a protein synthesis inhibitor, demonstrated that de novo protein synthesis is required for IL-1β induced MMP-9 expression. Moreover, nuclear run-on analysis has revealed that IL-1β significantly increased MMP-9 gene transcription in GCT stromal cells. The data suggest that IL-1β secreted by the multinucleated giant cells in GCT may be one of the factors responsible for the induction of MMP-9 at the transcriptional level in GCT stromal cells in vivo. We conclude that GCT has a self-stimulatory system for the production of MMP-9, and the ability of stromal cells to produce MMP-9 with appropriate stimuli, such as IL-1β, and possibly in concert with other cytokines may contribute to the aggressive and potentially malignant behavior of GCT.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology