Internet of underground things in precision agriculture: Architecture and technology aspects

Mehmet C. Vuran, Abdul Salam, Rigoberto Wong, Suat Irmak

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

191 Scopus citations


The projected increases in World population and need for food have recently motivated adoption of information technology solutions in crop fields within precision agriculture approaches. Internet Of Underground Things (IOUT), which consists of sensors and communication devices, partly or completely buried underground for real-time soil sensing and monitoring, emerge from this need. This new paradigm facilitates seamless integration of underground sensors, machinery, and irrigation systems with the complex social network of growers, agronomists, crop consultants, and advisors. In this paper, state-of-the-art communication architectures are reviewed, and underlying sensing technology and communication mechanisms for IOUT are presented. Moreover, recent advances in the theory and applications of wireless underground communication are also reported. Finally, major challenges in IOUT design and implementation are identified.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)160-173
Number of pages14
JournalAd Hoc Networks
StatePublished - Dec 2018


  • Internet of things
  • Precision agriculture
  • Sensing
  • Soil moisture
  • Wireless underground communications

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Computer Networks and Communications


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