Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative syndrome classically depicted by the parenchymal accumulation of extracellular amyloid beta plaques. However, recent findings suggest intraneuronal amyloid beta (iAβ1–42) accumulation precedes extracellular deposition. Furthermore, the pathologic increase in iAβ1–42 has been implicated in dysregulation of cellular mechanisms critically important in axonal transport. Owing to neuronal cell polarity, retrograde and anterograde axonal transport are essential trafficking mechanism necessary to convey membrane bound neurotransmitters, neurotrophins, and endosomes between soma and synaptic interfaces. Although iAβ1–42 disruption of axonal transport has been implicated in dysregulation of neuronal synaptic transmission, the role of iAβ1–42 and its influence on signal transduction involving the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and morphogenetic signaling axis are unknown. Our biochemical characterization of intracellular amyloid beta accumulation on MAPK and morphogenetic signaling have revealed increased iAβ1–42 expression leads to significant reduction in ERK 1/2 phosphorylation and increased bone morphogenetic protein 2 dependent Smad 1/5/8 phosphorylation. Furthermore, rescue of iAβ1–42 mediated attenuation of MAPK signaling can be accomplished with the small molecule PLX4032 as a downstream enhancer of the MAPK pathway. Consequently, our observations regarding the dysregulation of these gatekeepers of neuronal viability may have important implications in understanding the iAβ1–42 mediated effects observed in AD.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)