Investigating the Influences of Language Delay and/or Familial Risk for Dyslexia on Brain Structure in 5-Year-Olds

Nora Maria Raschle, Bryce Larkin Chessell Becker, Sara Smith, Lynn Valérie Fehlbaum, Yingying Wang, Nadine Gaab

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

12 Scopus citations

Abstract

Early language delay has often been associated with atypical language/literacy development. Neuroimaging studies further indicate functional disruptions during language and print processing in school-age children with a retrospective report of early language delay. Behavioral data of 114 5-year-olds with a retrospective report of early language delay in infancy (N = 34) and those without (N = 80) and with a familial risk for dyslexia and those without are presented. Behaviorally, children with a retrospective report of early language delay exhibited reduced performance in language/reading-related measures. A voxel-based morphometry analysis in a subset (N = 46) demonstrated an association between reduced gray matter volume and early language delay in left-hemispheric middle temporal, occipital, and frontal regions. Alterations in middle temporal cortex in children with a retrospective report of early language delay were observed regardless of familial risk for dyslexia. Additionally, while children with isolated familial risk for dyslexia showed gray matter reductions in temporoparietal and occipitotemporal regions, these effects were most profound in children with both risk factors. An interaction effect of early language delay and familial risk was revealed in temporoparietal, occipital, and frontal cortex. Our findings support a cumulative effect of early behavioral and genetic risk factors on brain development and may ultimately inform diagnosis/treatment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)764-776
Number of pages13
JournalCerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991)
Volume27
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2017

Keywords

  • developmental disorder
  • developmental dyslexia
  • familial risk
  • language delay
  • voxel-based morphometry

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cognitive Neuroscience
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

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