Investigations on four host response factors whose expression is enhanced in X4 SHIV encephalitis

Shilpa Buch, Yongjun Sui, Navneet Dhillon, Raghava Potula, Christoher Zien, David Pinson, Shanping Li, Sukhbir Dhillon, Brandon Nicolay, Alex Sidelnik, Cicy Li, Tara Villinger, Kunal Bisarriya, Opendra Narayan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


HIV encephalopathy, one of the major complications of HIV infection, involves productive virus replication in macrophages in the brain in association with heightened expression of several host response factors. One or more of these factors are thought to be the cause of the degenerative changes in neurons in the brain. Macaques infected with SIV and SHIV viruses have provided excellent working models for studying mechanisms of the human disease. Although HIV encephalopathy is primarily associated with CCR5-utilizing viruses, our findings have shown that CXCR4-utilizing SHIVs were also capable of causing the syndrome in rhesus macaques. In SHIV-infected macaques, approximately 30% of the animals developed encephalitis. In order to understand the factors leading to end-stage encephalitis, we performed microarray analyses on brains of encephalitic and non-encephalitic-infected macaques, and found pronounced enhancement of expression of interleukin-4, platelet-derived growth factor-B chain, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and CXCL10 in the brains of the encephalitic animals. This review discusses the role of each of these factors in mediating SHIV encephalitis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)71-80
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Neuroimmunology
Issue number1-2 SPEC. ISS.
StatePublished - Dec 2004
Externally publishedYes


  • Chemokines
  • Cytokines
  • HIV encephalitis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology


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