Involvement of organelles and inter-organellar signaling in the pathogenesis of HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorder and Alzheimer's disease

Nabab Khan, Norman J. Haughey, Avindra Nath, Jonathan D. Geiger

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Abstract

Endolysosomes, mitochondria, peroxisomes, endoplasmic reticulum, and plasma membranes are now known to physically and functionally interact with each other. Such findings of inter-organellar signaling and communication has led to a resurgent interest in cell biology and an increased appreciation for the physiological actions and pathological consequences of the dynamic physical and chemical communications occurring between intracellular organelles. Others and we have shown that HIV-1 proteins implicated in the pathogenesis of neuroHIV and that Alzheimer's disease both affects the structure and function of intracellular organelles. Intracellular organelles are highly mobile, and their intracellular distribution almost certainly affects their ability to interact with other organelles and to regulate such important physiological functions as endolysosome acidification, cell motility, and nutrient homeostasis. Indeed, compounds that acidify endolysosomes cause endolysosomes to exhibit a mainly perinuclear pattern while compounds that de-acidify endolysosomes cause these organelles to exhibit a larger profile as well as movement towards plasma membranes. Endolysosome pH might be an early event in the pathogenesis of neuroHIV and Alzheimer's disease and in terms of organellar biology endolysosome changes might be upstream of HIV-1 protein-induced changes to other organelles. Thus, inter-organellar signaling mechanisms might be involved in the pathogenesis of neuroHIV and other neurological disorders, and a better understanding of inter-organellar signaling might lead to improved therapeutic strategies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number146389
JournalBrain Research
Volume1722
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1 2019

Keywords

  • Alzheimer's disease
  • Calcium
  • Endolysosomes
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorder
  • Inter-organellar signaling
  • Mitochondria

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Molecular Biology
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Developmental Biology

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