Iron(III)-mediated Electrochemical Detection of Levofloxacin in Complex Biological Samples

Hamid R. Lotfi Zadeh Zhad, Rebecca Y. Lai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


We report the design of an electrochemical sensor capable of detecting levofloxacin (LEVX) in complex biological samples. This detection strategy is simple, fast, and does not require sample pretreatment or electrode modification. Unlike previously developed electrochemical LEVX sensors that require direct oxidation of LEVX, the sensing mechanism is based on the complexation reactions between LEVX and iron(III), resulting in a concentration-dependent decrease in the iron(III) reduction peak current and a shift in the peak potential. These changes are presumably attributed to the decrease in the concentration of uncomplexed Fe(III) in the solution. The concentration-dependent change in both the current and potential can be used for quantification of LEVX in various samples, including 50 % synthetic urine and 25 % synthetic human saliva. The limit of detection was estimated to be in the range of 1.5 to 2.3 μM, concentrations that are much lower than the concentration of LEVX found in urine and saliva samples of patients administered this drug for conditions such as urinary tract infection. With further optimization, this sensing strategy could find applications in clinical pharmacokinetic studies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2672-2677
Number of pages6
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2017


  • cyclic voltammetry
  • differential pulse voltammetry
  • ferric chloride
  • levofloxacin
  • square wave voltammetry

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Electrochemistry


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