Is bacteremic sepsis associated with higher mortality in transplant recipients than in nontransplant patients? a matched case-control propensity-adjusted study

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47 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background. Sepsis is a serious complication of solid organ transplant (SOT). Evidence on survival differences between SOT recipients and non-SOT patients with sepsis is lacking. Methods. This was a matched, case-control propensity-adjusted study. Conditional logistic regression was performed for risk factor analysis, and Cox proportional hazards regression for survival analysis. Results. Three hundred sixty-nine patients (123 cases; 246 controls) diagnosed with blood culture-proven sepsis were matched 1:2 by age, sex, and hospital location. The distribution of allografts was 36.6% kidney, 34.1% liver, 13% kidney-pancreas, 7.3% small bowel/liver, 5.7% heart/lung, and 3.3% multivisceral. The conditional logistic regression showed that the following factors were significantly more frequently associated with SOT compared to non-SOT: higher number of comorbidities (odds ratio [OR] = 8.2 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.48-45.44], P =.016); higher Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment score (OR = 1.2 [95% CI, 1.07-1.32], P =.001); presence of nosocomial infection (OR = 36.3 [95% CI, 9.71-135.96], P <.0001); appropriate initial antibiotics (OR = 0.04 [95% CI,.006-.23], P <.0001); and lower white blood cell count (OR = 0.93 [95% CI,.89-.97], P <.0001). Cox proportional hazards regression showed that after all adjustments for clinical presentation, severity of illness, and types of infection, SOT recipients with sepsis had a significantly lower risk of death at 28 days (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.22 [95% CI,.09-.54], P =.001) and at 90 days (HR = 0.43 [95% CI,.20-.89], P =.025). Conclusions. The 28-day and 90-day mortality were significantly decreased for transplant recipients compared with nontransplant patients. These findings suggest that the immunosuppression associated with transplantation may provide a survival advantage to transplant recipients with sepsis through modulation of the inflammatory response.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)216-222
Number of pages7
JournalClinical Infectious Diseases
Volume60
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 15 2015

Keywords

  • mortality
  • sepsis
  • transplantation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

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