Joint Angle Variability Is Altered in Patients with Peripheral Artery Disease after Six Months of Exercise Intervention

Farahnaz Fallahtafti, Zahra Salamifar, Mahdi Hassan, Hafizur Rahman, Iraklis Pipinos, Sara A. Myers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Supervised exercise therapy (SET) is a conservative non-operative treatment strategy for improving walking performance in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD). Gait variability is altered in patients with PAD, but the effect of SET on gait variability is unknown. Forty-three claudicating patients with PAD underwent gait analysis before and immediately after a 6-month SET program. Nonlinear gait variability was assessed using sample entropy, and the largest Lyapunov exponent of the ankle, knee, and hip joint angle time series. Linear mean and variability of the range of motion time series for these three joint angles were also calculated. Two-factor repeated measure analysis of variance determined the effect of the intervention and joint location on linear and nonlinear dependent variables. After SET, walking regularity decreased, while the stability remained unaffected. Ankle nonlinear variability had increased values compared with the knee and hip joints. Linear measures did not change following SET, except for knee angle, in which the magnitude of variations increased after the intervention. A six-month SET program produced changes in gait variability toward the direction of healthy controls, which indicates that in general, SET improved walking performance in individuals with PAD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1422
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2022


  • arterial disease
  • claudication
  • joint kinetics
  • vascular disease
  • walking performance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Information Systems
  • Mathematical Physics
  • Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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