Knowledge gaps to understanding cardiac macrophage polarization following myocardial infarction

Merry L. Lindsey, Jeffrey J. Saucerman, Kristine Y. DeLeon-Pennell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Scopus citations


Following myocardial infarction (MI), macrophages coordinate both pro-inflammatory and reparative responses of the left ventricle (LV) by reacting to and secreting cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors and by stimulating endothelial cells and fibroblasts to modulate neovascularization and scar formation. Healing of the infarcted LV can be divided into three distinct, but overlapping phases: inflammatory, proliferative, and maturation. Macrophages are involved in all phases. Despite macrophages being a major leukocyte cell type in the post-MI LV, how this cell type regulates LV remodeling over the post-MI time continuum is not completely understood. In this review, we summarize the current literature as a foundation to discuss the major knowledge gaps that remain. Defining the post-MI temporal macrophage phenotypes to establish a classification system is the first step in exploring how macrophage phenotypes are regulated, how temporal stimulation and secretion profiles evolve, and how best to modify stimuli to yield predictable cell responses. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The role of post-translational protein modifications on heart and vascular metabolism edited by Jason R.B. Dyck & Jan F.C. Glatz.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2288-2292
Number of pages5
JournalBiochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Basis of Disease
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 1 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • Big data
  • Computational modeling
  • Macrophage
  • Matrix metalloproteinases
  • Myocardial infarction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Molecular Biology


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