Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of biofilm-associated prosthetic joint infection (PJI), resulting in considerable disability and prolonged treatment. It is known that host leukocyte IL-10 production is required for S. aureus biofilm persistence in PJI. An S. aureus bursa aurealis Tn library consisting of 1,952 non-essential genes was screened for mutants that failed to induce IL-10 in myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), which identified a critical role for bacterial lactic acid biosynthesis. We generated an S. aureus ddh/ldh1/ldh2 triple Tn mutant that cannot produce d- or l-lactate. Co-culture of MDSCs or macrophages with ddh/ldh1/ldh2 mutant biofilm produced substantially less IL-10 compared with wild-type S. aureus, which was also observed in a mouse model of PJI and led to reduced biofilm burden. Using MDSCs recovered from the mouse PJI model and in vitro leukocyte–biofilm co-cultures, we show that bacterial-derived lactate inhibits histone deacetylase 11, causing unchecked HDAC6 activity and increased histone 3 acetylation at the Il-10 promoter, resulting in enhanced Il-10 transcription in MDSCs and macrophages. Finally, we show that synovial fluid of patients with PJI contains elevated amounts of d-lactate and IL-10 compared with control subjects, and bacterial lactate increases IL-10 production by human monocyte-derived macrophages.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
- Microbiology (medical)
- Cell Biology