Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) increases systemic inflammation and causes duodenogastric reflux of bile and gastric bleeding. Laparotomy prevents gastric injury from the luminal irritant bile, but its effects on LPS-induced gastric injury are unknown. We hypothesized that laparotomy would diminish inflammation and attenuate gastric bleeding caused by LPS. In the rat, laparotomy, done either before or after administration of LPS, attenuated LPS-induced bile reflux, gastric bleeding, and cyclooxygenase-2, but not inducible nitric oxide synthase, expression when compared to controls given LPS. Laparotomy also blunted LPS-induced changes in serum cytokine production. These data suggest that laparotomy has gastroprotective effects by preventing LPS-induced bile reflux and gastric bleeding and by a mechanism mediated, at least in part by cyclooxygenase-2.
- Duodenogastric reflux
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