Liquid surface and liquid aerosol as the traditional liquid forms for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and inductively coupled plasma (ICP), respectively, have been used to analyze chromium (Cr) and cadmium (Cd) elements using LIBS in a liquid solution. The spectral differences, the effects of laser energy and laser frequency, the accumulated number of laser pulses, gate delay time, and the quantitative analyses for a liquid surface and a liquid aerosol were compared. The results showed that the liquid surface demonstrated a lower plasma threshold, higher optical emission intensity, and higher single-to-noise ratio. Moreover, the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the intensities of the liquid aerosol are better than those of the liquid surface. Furthermore, the results of the quantitative analyses of Cr I 357.86 nm and Cd I 361.05 nm of the liquid surface are close to those of the liquid aerosol. The limit of detections of Cr and Cd of the liquid surface were 2.764 and 86.869 μg/mL, which were close to those of liquid aerosol, 2.847 μg/mL of Cr and 97.635 μg/mL of Cd. For both the liquid surface and liquid aerosol, the coefficient of determination R2 of the calibration curve for Cr and Cd were above 0.99, and the average RSDs of Cr and Cd of the liquid surface were 0.027 and 0.054, which were similar to the 0.020 of Cr and 0.042 of Cd of the liquid aerosol. These results suggest that both the liquid surface and aerosol have similar detection abilities for water quality monitoring.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
- Engineering (miscellaneous)
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering