Purpose of Review: Tuberculosis is the number one infectious killer of people with HIV worldwide, but it can be both prevented and treated. Prevention of tuberculosis by screening for and treating latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), along with the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART), is the key component of HIV care. Recent Findings: While access to ART has increased worldwide, uptake and completion of LTBI treatment regimens among people living with HIV (PWH) are very poor. Concomitant TB-preventive therapy and ART are complex because of drug–drug interactions, but these can be managed. Recent clinical trials of shorter preventive regimens have demonstrated safety and efficacy in PWH with higher completion rates. More research is needed to guide TB-preventive therapy in children and in pregnant women, and for drug-resistant TB (DR-TB). Summary: Antiretroviral therapy and tuberculosis-preventive treatment regimens can be optimized to avoid drug–drug interactions, decrease pill burden and duration, and minimize side effects in order to increase adherence and treatment completion rates among PWH and LTBI.
- Latent tuberculosis infection
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Infectious Diseases