Lecture, Online, Flipped, and Blended: A Mixed-Methods Study on Ultrasound Student Outcomes and Perceptions

Tanya Custer, Kathryn Wampler, Lea Lambing, Harlan Sayles, Kim Michael

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of course delivery methods on examination grades and student perceptions in a sonography course. Materials and Methods: The participant included all sonography students (n = 103), enrolled at a Midwestern university, during the academic years (AY) of 2010–2021. A retrospective, convergent mixed-methods design was used to collect and analyze data, related to the course delivery method. Results: The highest overall mean examination score and course satisfaction rating resulted from the blended learning format and the lowest mean examination scores and course satisfaction resulted from the flipped learning format. Conclusion: Health professions students are a diverse group of learners. Pedagogical practices should include course design and delivery methods which educate all learners. Courses that balance both face-to-face learning with opportunities for self-directed learning improve student satisfaction which could lead to improved student outcomes and provide the foundation for students to become competent health care professionals.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)487-496
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Diagnostic Medical Sonography
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 2022


  • blended learning format
  • education
  • flipped learning format
  • online learning format
  • pedagogy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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