Glutamate release after ischemia, hypoxia and seizure activity plays an important role in stimulating adenosine production and release. We characterized the ionotropic glutamate receptor subtype that regulates adenosine levels in vivo and investigated the role of nitric oxide and free radicals in mediating N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced increases in adenosine levels. Rats received unilateral intrastriatal injections and were sacrificed 15 min postinjection by high-energy focused microwave irradiation (10 kW, 1.25 s). Adenosine levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography in ipsilateral and contralateral striata. NMDA and kainic acid dose-dependently increased levels of adenosine whereas (±)-α-amino-3- hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazol proprionic acid had no effect. The NMDA-and kainic acid-induced increases were blocked by dizocilpine, and the kainic acid response was decreased by 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione. The effects of NMDA and kainic acid on levels of adenosine were not additive. Intrastriatal L-arginine decreased, and the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, increased basal adenosine levels. Coadministration of NMDA with L-arginine or N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester did not significantly affect NMDA-induced increases in levels of adenosine. N-Tert-butyl-phenylnitrone, a free radical scavenger, reversed L- arginine-induced decreases and NMDA-induced increases in levels of adenosine. Together, these results indicate that NMDA-type ionotropic receptors play an important role in regulating in vivo levels of adenosine in rat striatum and that free radicals, but not nitric oxide, apparently are involved in NMDA- induced increases in levels of adenosine. Conversely, nitric oxide, but not free radicals, apparently exert tonic control over basal levels of endogenous adenosine.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||7|
|Journal||Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics|
|State||Published - 1998|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Medicine