This study was designed to compare changes in lipid status following organ transplantation between type I diabetes mellitus (DM-I) patients receiving combined pancreas-kidney transplantation (PKT) with those receiving kidney transplantation alone (KTA). A retrospective chart review was used to identify pre- and posttransplantation fasting total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) in three groups: DM-I patients receiving KTA (DM:KTA; n=14), DM-I patients receiving PKT (DM:PKT; n=20), and kidney transplant recipients without DM (NDM; n=16). The groups were matched for age, gender, weight, duration of dialysis, smoking history, and duration of diabetes mellitus. Linear regression was used to analyze differences in lipid trends over time (up to 24 months posttransplantation) and the effects of prednisone dose, cyclosporine dose, and serum creatinine. Preoperative TC was significantly lower in the DM:KTA group (P<0.05) compared with DM:PKT or NDM. There were no significant differences in preoperative TG between the three groups. TC and TG decreased over time only in DM:PKT (P=0.0112, P=0.0278, respectively). TC increased and TG was unchanged over time in DM:KTA (P=0.0003, P=0.1103, respectively). Neither TC nor TG changed over time in NDM. Trends of TC and TG for DM:PKT were significantly different from DM:KTA (P<0.01 for both). Trend of TC for NDM was also significantly different from DM:PKT (P=0.0061). Prednisone dose was significantly related to TC in DM:KTA and NDM (P<0.01) while cyclosporine dose was significantly related to TC for DM:KTA only (P=0.0013) in the presence of time. None of the variables tested (prednisone dose, cyclosporine dose, and serum creatinine) significantly affected TG in the presence of time. In summary, TC and TG decreased over time only in DM:PKT. In contrast, TC increased while TG was unchanged in DM:KTA over the same interval (0-24 months). If these trends continue, the beneficial change in lipids in the DM:PKT group may translate into a net improvement in atherosclerosis-mediated events for diabetic patients with chronic renal failure who receive PKT compared with those who do not.
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