Vascular endothelial cell (EC) injury or activation by LPS plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of Gram-negative meningitis and endotoxic shock. EC do not express membrane CD14, but respond to LPS in a soluble CD14- dependent manner. The signal transduction mechanisms involved in LPS-induced EC responses are largely unknown. We used bovine and human brain microvessel EC (BBMEC, and HBMEC) to study LPS-induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation. LPS rapidly induced the tyrosine phosphorylation of several proteins in BBMEC and HBMEC, which was detectable by 5 to 15 min, reached a maximum by 30 min, and declined by 60 to 90 min. The increase in tyrosine phosphorylation was apparent following stimulation with LPS at 0.1 ng/ml and was dose dependent up to 100 ng/ml. Similar changes in tyrosine phosphorylation were induced by smooth and rough LPS as well as lipid A, but not by the inactive lipid A analogue, Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides diphosphoryl lipid A. Pretreatment of EC with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, herbimycin A, inhibited LPS-stimulated protein tyrosine phosphorylation and LPS-mediated lactic dehydrogenase release from BBMEC and IL-6 release from HBMEC in a dose-dependent manner. Three proteins with apparent m.w. of 44, 42, and 41 kDa were predominant among the LPS-induced tyrosine phosphoproteins, and they were identified as mitogen-activated protein kinase isoforms ERK1, ERK2, and p38, respectively. LPS-induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation in HBMEC and BBMEC was soluble CD14 dependent, since pretreatment of these cells with anti-hCD14 mAb inhibited the LPS-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of p44, p42, and p41. Additionally, LPS induced a mobility shift in p44 and p42 mitogen-activated protein kinase isozymes, which was inhibited by herbimycin A pretreatment of the EC. These findings demonstrate for the first time that increased protein tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases occur rapidly after LPS stimulation of EC in the presence of soluble CD14. Our data also suggest that a herbimycin-sensitive step, presumably a tyrosine kinase, is involved in mediating LPS-induced human EC activation and IL-6 secretion.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||10|
|Journal||Journal of Immunology|
|State||Published - 1995|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy