Numerous causes can lead to hepatic dysfunction following orthotopic liver transplantation. The most common cause is rejection, which is usually nonpreventable. The clinical presentation, time of onset, and even treatment are variable. Other causes, such as perioperative ischemic injury, vascular thrombosis, and complications of bile duct reconstruction may be preventable with good surgical technique. Infections can also be minimized by careful adjustment of immunotherapy, avoidance overimmunosuppression, and the judicious use of antibiotics. Hepatic dysfunction following orthotopic liver transplantation requires rapid assessment and proper treatment in order to prevent serious and possibly fatal complications.
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