Local and global universal relations for first-gradient materials

Mehrdad Negahban, Mukesh V. Gandhi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Local universal relations are relations between stress and kinematic variables which hold for all materials of a particular class irrespective of specific material parameters. A method is developed for obtaining local universal relations for most first gradient materials. The currently known local universal relations for isotropic elastic materials have been extended to all isotropic first gradient materials under constant step deformation histories and have also been extended to all isotropic first gradient materials undergoing arbitrary time dependent triaxial extensions along fixed material directions. It has been shown that universal relations exist for some anisotropic materials. A set of pseudo-universal relations has been obtained for anisotropic elastic materials which can be used to decouple the material functions. These pseudo-universal relations contain some, but not all, material functions. A global universal relation has been developed for the extension and torsion of an isotropic cylindrical shaft which holds for all incompressible first gradient materials.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)67-87
Number of pages21
JournalJournal of Elasticity
Issue number1
StatePublished - Oct 1993
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


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