Background: The objective of this exploratory study was to evaluate inflammatory markers in periodontal maintenance patients from a randomized, double-masked, parallel intervention clinical trial comparing local simvastatin (SIM) to carrier alone following mini-flap access. Methods: Fifty patients with a 6–9-mm inflamed pocket during periodontal maintenance therapy (PMT) were treated with papilla reflection (PR)/root planing and placement of 2.2-mg simvastatin in methylcellulose (SIM/MCL) or methylcellulose alone (MCL). A small piece of interproximal soft tissue was harvested at baseline and 2 weeks postoperatively, gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) obtained at baseline, 2 weeks and 12 months, and bleeding on probing (BOP) and clinical attachment level (CAL) were measured at baseline and 12 months. Pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-6 and anti-inflammatory IL-10 gene activation were determined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR). GCF IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A) were measured with multiplex technology. Comparisons between groups and over time used logistic regression and general estimating equations. Associations between inflammatory markers and 12-month outcomes used Wilcoxon rank sum tests or Pearson correlations. Results: Patients in the SIM group had 4.17 greater odds (p = 0.047) of improved BOP at 12 months. Median IL-6 and VEGF were significantly increased for all patients after 2 weeks of healing (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.03, respectively), while median IL-10 gene activation was increased after 2 weeks in SIM/MCL (NS). Overall, elevated GCF IL-10 at 2 weeks was significantly correlated with improved CAL at 12 months (r = −0.32, p = 0.03). Conclusions: Local SIM/MCL may have anti-inflammatory effects that potentially are associated with improved long-term CAL outcomes.
- wound healing
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