Longer Term Effects of a Tier 2 Kindergarten Vocabulary Intervention for English Learners

Patricia F. Vadasy, J. Ron Nelson, Elizabeth A. Sanders

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


This study examines the longer term effectiveness of a standard protocol, Tier 2 supplemental vocabulary intervention for kindergarten English learners, designed to develop root word vocabulary knowledge and reinforce beginning word reading skills. Participating students in the original study (n = 93 treatment, 92 control) received 20 weeks of small group instruction from paraeducator tutors during kindergarten. After attrition, students (n = 74 treatment, 66 control) were followed up midyear Grade 1 on English measures of proximal and distal vocabulary as well as word reading. At 6 months postintervention, the treatment benefits were maintained on all three outcomes, and furthermore, there was no evidence to suggest that early receptive vocabulary knowledge moderated longer term treatment effects. Results also showed kindergarten intervention year gains in proximal (i.e., root word) vocabulary uniquely predicted midyear Grade 1 distal vocabulary above and beyond kindergarten gains in distal vocabulary. Implications for English learner early intervention are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)91-101
Number of pages11
JournalRemedial and Special Education
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2013


  • English learners
  • intervention
  • multilevel modeling
  • root word
  • vocabulary

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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