Lupine allergy: Not simply cross-reactivity with peanut or soy

Kim A.B.M. Peeters, Julie A. Nordlee, André H. Penninks, Lingyun Chen, Richard E. Goodman, Carla A.F.M. Bruijnzeel-Koomen, Sue L. Hefle, Steve L. Taylor, André C. Knulst

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

72 Scopus citations


Background: Reports of lupine allergy are increasing as its use in food products increases. Lupine allergy might be the consequence of cross-reactivity after sensitization to peanut or other legumes or de novo sensitization. Lupine allergens have not been completely characterized. Objectives: We sought to identify allergens associated with lupine allergy, evaluate potential cross-reactivity with peanut, and determine eliciting doses (EDs) for lupine allergy by using double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges. Methods: Six patients with a history of allergic reactions to lupine flour were evaluated by using skin prick tests, CAP tests, and double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges. Three of these patients were also allergic to peanut. Lupine allergens were characterized by means of IgE immunoblotting and peptide sequencing. Results: In all 6 patients the ED for lupine flour was 3 mg or less for subjective symptoms and 300 mg or more for objective symptoms. The low ED and moderate-to-severe historical symptoms indicate significant allergenicity of lupine flour. Two patients allergic to lupine but not to peanut displayed IgE binding predominantly to approximately 66-kd proteins and weak binding to 14- and 24-kd proteins, whereas patients with peanut allergy and lupine allergy showed weak binding to lupine proteins of about 14 to 21 or 66 kd. Inhibition of binding was primarily species specific. Conclusion: Lupine allergy can occur either separately or together with peanut allergy, as demonstrated by 3 patients who are cosensitized to peanut and lupine. Clinical implications: Lupine flour is allergenic and potentially cross-reactive with peanut allergen, thus posing some risk if used as a replacement for soy flour.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)647-653
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 2007


  • IgE immunoblotting
  • Lupine allergy
  • allergens
  • amino acid sequencing
  • cross-reactivity
  • double-blind
  • eliciting dose
  • legumes
  • peanut
  • placebo-controlled food challenge
  • skin prick tests

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology


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