Macrophage endocytic trafficking of antiretroviral nanoparticles

Irena Kadiu, Ari Nowacek, Jo Ellyn McMillan, Howard E. Gendelman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

53 Scopus citations


Aim: Nanoformulated antiretroviral therapy can improve drug compliance for people infected with HIV. Additional benefits would include specific drug deliveries to viral reservoirs and reduction in systemic toxicities. Methods: In this article, we describe mechanisms of crystalline antiretroviral nanoparticle (NP) uptake, intracellular trafficking and release in human monocyte-derived macrophages. Results: Following clathrin-dependent endocytosis NPs bypassed lysosomal degradation by sorting from early endosomes to recycling endosome pathways. Disruption of this pathway by siRNAs or brefeldin-A impaired particle release. Proteomic and biological analysis demonstrated that particle recycling was primarily Rab11 regulated. Particles were released intact and retained complete antiretroviral efficacy. Conclusion: These results suggest possible pathways of subcellular transport of antiretroviral nanoformulations that preserve both particle integrity and antiretroviral activities demonstrating the potential utility of this approach for targeted drug delivery.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)975-994
Number of pages20
Issue number6
StatePublished - Aug 2011


  • HIV
  • Rab11
  • antiretroviral therapy
  • drug delivery
  • endocytic trafficking
  • homogenization
  • monocyte-derived macrophages
  • nanoformulated antiretroviral drugs
  • recycling endosomes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • General Materials Science
  • Development


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