Mononuclear phagocytes are major participants in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. These cells function as susceptible targets, persistent reservoirs for virus in tissue and key immunoregulatory elements that control the level of virus replication and the extent of disease. In this review, the second of the series, Monte Meltzer and colleagues review the distinct interactions between HIV and monocytes and between HIV and T cells. Understanding this dualism may more clearly define both the pathogenesis of HIV disease and strategies for therapeutic intervention.
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