Macrophages, chemokines and neuronal injury in HIV-1-associated dementia.

Lisa A. Ryan, Robin L. Cotter, Walter E. Zink, Howard E. Gendelman, Jialin Zheng

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

34 Scopus citations


Human immunodeficiency virus type-one (HIV- 1)-associated dementia (HAD) is manifested as a spectrum of behavioral, motor and cognitive dysfunctions. The disorder commonly occurs during late stage HIV disease and remains an important complication despite highly active antiretroviral therapies. A metabolic encephalopathy, fueled by neurotoxic secretions from brain mononuclear phagocytes (MP) (macrophages and microglia) underlies HIV- I neuropathogenesis. One pivotal question, however, is how brain MP evolve from neurotrophic to neurotoxic cells. The interplay between the virus, the macrophage and the neuron has just recently begun to be unraveled. Along with a multitude of other MP secretory products, chemokines effect neuronal function by engaging neuronal receptors then activating pathways that alter synaptic transmission, cell growth, injury and protection. Both neurons and glia secrete chemokines. Interestingly, HIV-1 and its gene products can mimic chemokine neuronal signaling by binding to neuronal chemokine receptors or by other non-specific mechanisms. The elucidation of mechanisms involved in chemokine-mediated neural compromise will likely provide unique insights into the pathogenesis and treatment, not only of HAD, but of a wide range of neurodegenerative disorders.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)137-150
Number of pages14
JournalCellular and molecular biology (Noisy-le-Grand, France)
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 2002

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology


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