Magnetic resonance imaging and relaxometry to visualize internal freeze damage to pickling cucumber

Nachiket Kotwaliwale, Evan Curtis, Shadi Othman, Govindarajan K. Naganathan, Jeyamkondan Subbiah

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


Magnetic resonance (MR) images and tissue relaxometry (T 1 and T 2) data, using a 9.4T MR system, were used to assess freeze damage to pickling cucumbers. Freeze damage was induced by placing cucumbers at -18°C for 150min and the samples were then stored in a controlled atmosphere. T 1 and T 2-weighted images were generated at echo time (TE) of 10ms at specific intervals for cucumbers stored for a period of 7d. Texture profile analysis of the control and freeze-damaged samples was also carried out on the day of MR imaging. MR images showed good contrast between different physiological constituents of a pickling cucumber. A subsurface region in the freeze damaged samples was distinctly different in all MR images which could be physically correlated with damaged tissues visible in a cut-away section of the freeze-damaged pickling cucumber. Spin-lattice relaxation time (T 1) was not different for different constituents of a pickling cucumber and could not be used to resolve between control and freeze damaged samples. Whereas, spin-spin relaxation time (T 2) values for all the regions of a cucumber slice were higher for the freeze-damaged samples than that for control samples. The T 2 values for seeds and the gel around seeds sections were also significantly different from the rest of the cucumber constituents. However, T 2 values did not change significantly over the storage period. Firmness and chewiness characteristics of pickling cucumbers changed during the storage; however, there was no correlation seen between T 2 values and firmness of the fruit.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)22-31
Number of pages10
JournalPostharvest Biology and Technology
StatePublished - Jun 2012


  • Freeze damage
  • Magnetic resonance imaging
  • Pickling cucumber
  • Relaxometry
  • Spin-lattice relaxation
  • Spin-spin relaxation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Agronomy and Crop Science
  • Horticulture


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