Background & Aims: Epidemiological studies have established alcohol and smoking as independent risk factors for recurrent acute pancreatitis and chronic pancreatitis. However, the molecular players responsible for the progressive loss of pancreatic parenchyma and fibroinflammatory response are poorly characterized. Methods: Tandem mass tag–based proteomic and bioinformatics analyses were performed on the pancreata of mice exposed to alcohol, cigarette smoke, or a combination of alcohol and cigarette smoke. Biochemical, immunohistochemistry, and transcriptome analyses were performed on the pancreatic tissues and primary acinar cells treated with cerulein in combination with ethanol (50 mmol/L) and cigarette smoke extract (40 μg/mL) for the mechanistic studies. Results: A unique alteration in the pancreatic proteome was observed in mice exposed chronically to the combination of alcohol and cigarette smoke (56.5%) compared with cigarette smoke (21%) or alcohol (17%) alone. The formation of toxic metabolites (P < .001) and attenuated unfolded protein response (P < .04) were the significantly altered pathways on combined exposure. The extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins showed stable malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde (MAA) adducts in the pancreata of the combination group and chronic pancreatitis patients with a history of smoking and alcohol consumption. Interestingly, MAA-ECM adducts significantly suppressed expression of X-box-binding protein-1, leading to acinar cell death in the presence of alcohol and smoking. The stable MAA-ECM adducts persist even after alcohol and smoking cessation, and significantly delay pancreatic regeneration by abrogating the expression of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK7 and CDK5) and regeneration markers. Conclusions: The combined alcohol and smoking generate stable MAA-ECM adducts that increase endoplasmic reticulum stress and acinar cell death due to attenuated unfolded protein response and suppress expression of cell cycle regulators. Targeting aldehyde adducts might provide a novel therapeutic strategy for the management of recurrent acute pancreatitis and chronic pancreatitis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1064-1078.e10
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 2022


  • Alcohol
  • Aldehyde Adducts
  • Chronic Pancreatitis
  • Extracellular Matrix Proteins
  • Smoking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hepatology
  • Gastroenterology


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