Radiation therapy is a frequently used treatment for prostate cancer patients. Manganese (III) meso-tetrakis (N-ethylpyridinium-2-yl) porphyrin (MnTE-2-PyP or T2E or BMX-010) and other similar manganese porphyrin compounds that scavenge superoxide molecules have been demonstrated to be effective radioprotectors and prevent the development of radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF). However, understanding the molecular pathway changes associated with these compounds remains limited for radioprotection. Recent RNA-sequencing data from our laboratory revealed that MnTE-2-PyP treatment activated the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) signaling pathway. Therefore, we hypothesize that MnTE-2-PyP protects the prostate from RIF by activating the NRF2 signaling pathway. We identified that MnTE-2-PyP is a post-translational activator of NRF2 signaling in prostate fibroblast cells, which plays a major role in fibroblast activation and myofibroblast differentiation. The mechanism of NRF2 activation involves an increase in hydrogen peroxide and a corresponding decrease in kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (KEAP1) levels. Activation of NRF2 signaling leads to an increase in expression of NAD(P)H dehydrogenase [quinone] 1 (NQO1), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) levels, sirtuin activity (nuclear and mitochondrial), and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) expression/activity. Increase in mitochondrial sirtuin activity correlates with a decrease in SOD2 (K122) acetylation. This decrease in SOD2 K122 acetylation correlates with an increase in SOD2 activity and mitochondrial superoxide scavenging capacity. Further, in human primary prostate fibroblast cells, the NRF2 pathway plays a major role in the fibroblast to myofibroblast transformation, which is responsible for the fibrotic phenotype. In the context of radiation protection, MnTE-2-PyP fails to prevent fibroblast to myofibroblast transformation in the absence of NRF2 signaling. Collectively, our results indicate that the activation of the NRF2 signaling pathway by MnTE-2-PyP is at least a partial mechanism of radioprotection in prostate fibroblast cells.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||16|
|Journal||Free Radical Biology and Medicine|
|State||Published - May 20 2020|
- Prostate fibrosis
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physiology (medical)