Manifestation determination as a Golden Fleece

Antonis Katsiyannis, John W. Maag

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Scopus citations


Manifestation determination is a mandated provision for deciding whether a student's misbehavior is related to his disability and, consequently, whether cessation of services will be allowed. However, it is conceptually and methodologically flawed and appears to serve more of a political than educational purpose. In this article, we critique the manifestation determination provision by reviewing relevant case law and legislation, examining the social context surrounding this mandate, and questioning the validity of current approaches for making a manifestation determination. We believe this analysis will corroborate our thesis. Therefore, we conclude this article by proposing an alternative approach for conceptualizing and conducting a manifestation determination that has more functional implications than those currently in use and still addresses the spirit and letter of the law.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)85-96
Number of pages12
JournalExceptional Children
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2001

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


Dive into the research topics of 'Manifestation determination as a Golden Fleece'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this