Disease Overview: Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a non-Hodgkin lymphoma characterized by involvement of the lymph nodes, spleen, blood and bone marrow with a short remission duration to standard therapies and a median overall survival (OS) of 4-5 years. Diagnosis: Diagnosis is based on lymph node, bone marrow, or tissue morphology of centrocytic lymphocytes, small cell type, or blastoid variant cells. A chromosomal translocation t (11:14) is the molecular hallmark of MCL, resulting in the overexpression of cyclin D1. Cyclin D1 is detected by immunohistochemistry in 98% of cases. The absence of SOX-11 or a low Ki-67 may correlate with a more indolent form of MCL. The differential diagnosis of MCL includes small lymphocytic lymphoma, marginal zone lymphoma, and follicular lymphoma. Risk Stratification: The MCL International Prognostic Index (MIPI) is the prognostic model most often used and incorporates ECOG performance status, age, leukocyte count, and lactic dehydrogenase. A modification of the MIPI also adds the Ki-67 proliferative index if available. The median OS for the low-risk group was not reached (5-year OS of 60%). The median OS for the intermediate risk group was 51 months and 29 months for the high risk group. Risk-Adapted Therapy: For selected indolent, low MIPI MCL patients, initial observation may be appropriate therapy. For younger patients with intermediate or high risk MIPI MCL, aggressive therapy with a cytotoxic. Regimen followed by autologous stem cell transplantation should be considered. Rituximab maintenance after autologous stem cell transplantation has also improved the progression-free and overall survival. For older symptomatic MCL patients with intermediate or high risk MIPI, combination chemotherapy with R-CHOP, R-Bendamustine, or a clinical trial should be considered. In addition, rituximab maintenance therapy may prolong the progression-free survival. At the time of relapse, agents directed at activated pathways in MCL cells such as bortezomib (NFkB inhibitor), lenalidamide (anti-angiogenesis) and Ibruitinib (Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase [BTK] inhibitor) have demonstrated excellent clinical activity in MCL patients. Autologous or allogeneic stem cell transplantation can also be considered in young patients. Clinical trials with novel agents are always a consideration for MCL patients.
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