Measuring community coalition effectiveness using the ICE© instrument

Mary E. Cramer, Jan R. Atwood, Julie A. Stoner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


This article presents the development and psychometric testing of the Internal Coalition Effectiveness (ICE) instrument, which was based on the conceptual model Internal Coalition Outcome Hierarchy. Sixty-one items were derived from literature about successful coalitions, and the ICE instrument was tested for reliability and validity. A national panel of eight experts conducted content validity. Remaining tests involved a sample of 61 members and leaders of a large midwestern coalition (77% response rate, n = 47). Content validity involved a two-stage process for rigorous item development and quantification (0.88, p < 0.05). Internal consistency was based on bivariate Pearson's correlation of 0.30-0.70 for two-item scales and Cronbach's α(α = 0.70). Construct validity was assessed by correlation analysis, independent Student's t tests, and informal coalition feedback. The final 30-item version of ICE is psychometrically sound. Findings were shared with the local coalition, and, in support of the instrument's validity, members and leaders found this information useful for promoting coalition sustainability by identifying internal strengths and areas for improvement. The ICE instrument adds to the body of literature by measuring critical constructs of coalition effectiveness and has significant application for public health nurses working as evaluators for coalitions engaged in community health programing.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)74-87
Number of pages14
JournalPublic Health Nursing
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2006


  • Community coalition
  • Evaluation
  • Instrument
  • Reliability
  • Validity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nursing(all)
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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