Neurons are highly polarized cells that have specialized regions for synaptic input, the dendrites, and synaptic output, the axons. This polarity is critical for appropriate neural circuit formation and function. One of the central gaps in our knowledge is understanding how developing neurons initiate axon polarity. Given the critical nature of this polarity on neural circuit formation and function, neurons have evolved multiple mechanisms comprised of extracellular and intracellular cues that allow them to initiate and form axons. These mechanisms engage a variety of signaling cascades that provide positive and negative cues to ensure axon polarization. This review highlights our current knowledge of the molecular underpinnings of axon polarization in pyramidal neurons and their relevance to the development of the brain.
- Pyramidal neuron
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
- Cell Biology