Mechanisms of palatal epithelial seam disintegration by transforming growth factor (TGF) β3

Shaheen Ahmed, Chang Chih Liu, Ali Nawshad

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

54 Scopus citations


TGFβ3 signaling initiates and completes sequential phases of cellular differentiation that is required for complete disintegration of the palatal medial edge seam, that progresses between 14 and 17 embryonic days in the murine system, which is necessary in establishing confluence of the palatal stroma. Understanding the cellular mechanism of palatal MES disintegration in response to TGFβ3 signaling will result in new approaches to defining the causes of cleft palate and other facial clefts that may result from failure of seam disintegration. We have isolated MES primary cells to study the details of MES disintegration mechanism by TGFβ3 during palate development using several biochemical and genetic approaches. Our results demonstrate a novel mechanism of MES disintegration where MES, independently yet sequentially, undergoes cell cycle arrest, cell migration and apoptosis to generate immaculate palatal confluency during palatogenesis in response to robust TGFβ3 signaling. The results contribute to a missing fundamental element to our base knowledge of the diverse roles of TGFβ3 in functional and morphological changes that MES undergo during palatal seam disintegration. We believe that our findings will lead to more effective treatment of facial clefting.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)193-207
Number of pages15
JournalDevelopmental Biology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Sep 15 2007


  • Apoptosis
  • MES
  • Migration
  • Palate
  • TGFβ

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Developmental Biology
  • Cell Biology


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