Media use by children younger than 2 years

Ari Brown, Deborah Ann Mulligan, Tanya Remer Altmann, Dimitri A. Christakis, Kathleen Clarke-Pearson, Holly Lee Falik, David L. Hill, Marjorie J. Hogan, Alanna Estin Levine, Kathleen G. Nelson, Gwenn Schurgin O'Keeffe, Benard P. Dreyer, Gilbert L. Fuld, Regina M. Milteer, Donald L. Shifrin, Victor C. Strasburger, Michael Brody, Brian Wilcox, Gina Ley Steiner, Veronica Laude Noland

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

267 Scopus citations


In 1999, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) issued a policy statement addressing media use in children. The purpose of that statement was to educate parents about the effects that media - both the amount and the content - may have on children. In one part of that statement, the AAP recommended that "pediatricians should urge parents to avoid television viewing for children under the age of two years." The wording of the policy specifically discouraged media use in this age group, although it is frequently misquoted by media outlets as no media exposure in this age group. The AAP believed that there were significantly more potential negative effects of media than positive ones for this age group and, thus, advised families to thoughtfully consider media use for infants. This policy statement reaffirms the 1999 statement with respect to media use in infants and children younger than 2 years and provides updated research findings to support it. This statement addresses (1) the lack of evidence supporting educational or developmental benefits for media use by children younger than 2 years, (2) the potential adverse health and developmental effects of media use by children younger than 2 years, and (3) adverse effects of parental media use (background media) on children younger than 2 years.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1040-1045
Number of pages6
Issue number5
StatePublished - Nov 2011


  • Development
  • Infants
  • Media
  • Screen time
  • Television
  • Young children

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health


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