This meta-analysis study aims to quantify the group differences in reading skills between children with cochlear implants and their hearing peers and between children with cochlear implants and children with hearing aids (aged between 3 and 18 years old). Of the 5,642 articles screened, 47 articles met predetermined inclusion criteria (published between 2002 and 2019). The robust variance estimation based meta-analysis models were used to synthesize all the effect sizes. Children with cochlear implants scored significantly lower than their hearing peers in phonological awareness (g = -1.62, p < 0.001), vocabulary (g = -1.50, p < 0.001), decoding (g = -1.24, p < 0.001), and reading comprehension (g = -1.39, p < 0.001), but not for fluency (g = -0.67, p = 0.054). Compared to children with hearing aids, children with cochlear implants scored significantly lower in phonological awareness (g = -0.30, p = 0.028). The percentage of unilateral cochlear implant negatively impacts the group difference between children with cochlear implants and their hearing peers. Findings from this study confirm a positive shift in reading outcomes for profoundly deaf children due to cochlear implantation. Some children with cochlear implants may need additional supports in educational settings.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Speech and Hearing