Metabolites and Genes behind Cardiac Metabolic Remodeling in Mice with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Tyler N. Kambis, Hamid R. Shahshahan, Paras K. Mishra

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Metabolic remodeling is at the heart of diabetic cardiomyopathy. High glycemic fluctuations increase metabolic stress in the type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) heart. There is a lack of understanding on how metabolites and genes affect metabolic remodeling in the T1DM heart. We hypothesize that differential expression of metabolic genes and metabolites synergistically influence metabolic remodeling preceding T1DM cardiomyopathy. To test our hypothesis, we conducted high throughput analysis of hearts from adult male hyperglycemic Ins2+/− (Akita) and littermate normoglycemic Ins2+/+ (WT) mice. The Akita mouse is a spontaneous, genetic model of T1DM that develops increased levels of consistent glycemic variability without the off-target cardiotoxic effects present in chemically-induced models of T1DM. After validating the presence of a T1DM phenotype, we conducted metabolomics via LC-MS analysis and genomics via next-generation sequencing in left ventricle tissue from the Akita heart. Ingenuity Pathway Analyses revealed that 108 and 30 metabolic pathways were disrupted within the metabolomics and genomics datasets, respectively. Notably, a comparison between the two analyses showed 15 commonly disrupted pathways, including ketogenesis, ketolysis, cholesterol biosynthesis, acetyl CoA hydrolysis, and fatty acid biosynthesis and beta-oxidation. These identified metabolic pathways predicted by the differential expression of metabolites and genes provide the foundation for understanding metabolic remodeling in the T1DM heart. By limited experiment, we revealed a predicted disruption in the metabolites and genes behind T1DM cardiac metabolic derangement. Future studies targeting these genes and metabolites will unravel novel therapies to prevent/improve metabolic remodeling in the T1DM heart.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1392
JournalInternational journal of molecular sciences
Issue number3
StatePublished - Feb 1 2022


  • Beta-oxidation
  • Diabetic cardiomyopathy
  • Fatty acid
  • Genomics
  • Ketogenesis
  • Ketolysis
  • Metabolomics
  • Next generation sequencing
  • TCA cycle

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry


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