Laser material processing demonstrated its significance in many areas such as microelectronics, data storage, photonics and nanotechnology, since versatile laser sources provide flexible and unique energy source for precise control of material processing. The extreme conditions created by laser irradiation have provided strong impact on material research. To achieve nanoscale laser material machining and processing, we need to overcome the diffraction limit of the laser wavelengths. Recently, different approaches have been explored to overcome the diffraction limit and to achieve feature sizes down to 10 nm order, way beyond the diffraction limits. The author will provide an overview in the areas of laser-based micro/nanoscale surface modification and structuring, including his own research experience on laser-assisted scanning probe microscope, superfocusing by optical resonance in spherical particles, laser nanoimprinting, laser synthesis of quantum dots, laser annealing of ultrashow pn junctions, nanometer-order film thickness detection using rotational Raman spectroscopy, near-field-induced nanoscale deposition, laser cleaning of nanoparticles, near-field-controlled material deposition, laser-assisted growth of carbon nanotubes, and laser synthesis of one-dimensional carbon structures.