Millipore analysis of valvular fluid in sterile valve malfunctions

V. C. Traynelis, C. D. Willison, K. A. Follett, J. Chambers, S. S. Schochet, H. H. Kaufman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Malfunctions of sterile shunts may result from valvular dysfunction. The cerebrospinal fluid shunt valves of 14 patients were excised during surgery for sterile shunt malfunctions. In 6 patients, the malfunction was due specifically to a valve malfunction. Cerebrospinal fluid from each valve was passed through a millipore filter, which was then stained using either hematoxylin and eosin or periodic acid-Schiff. The stained millipore filters were examined by a neuropathologist who was unaware of the cause of the shunt malfunction. Although inflammatory cells were detected in all cases, the patients with valve malfunctions were found to have numerous macrophages and giant multinucleated reactive cells within their valves, while cerebrospinal fluid from valves that had been removed during shunt revisions for reasons other than a malfunctioning valve contained only rare mononuclear cells or macrophages. No valve contained erythrocytes, fibrinous matter, neural or glial tissue, or choroid plexus. The possible causes of valve malfunction, including infection and allergic reactions, are discussed. All patients did well after simple replacement of the valve.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)848-852
Number of pages5
Issue number6
StatePublished - 1991
Externally publishedYes


  • Cerebrospinal fluid shunt
  • Millipore filter
  • Shunt malfunction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Clinical Neurology


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