Mineralized nanofiber segments coupled with calcium-binding BMP-2 peptides for alveolar bone regeneration

Sunil Kumar Boda, Yosif Almoshari, Hongjun Wang, Xiaoyan Wang, Richard A. Reinhardt, Bin Duan, Dong Wang, Jingwei Xie

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

8 Scopus citations

Abstract

Bone loss around tooth extraction sites can occur, thus making future placement of dental implants difficult. Alveolar bone regeneration can be guided by the application of a nanofibrous bone graft coupled with osteoinductive proteins/peptides, following tooth loss or tooth extraction. In the present study, we demonstrate the potential of mineralized nanofiber segments coupled with calcium-binding bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) mimicking peptides for periodontal bone regeneration. Thin electrospun nanofiber membranes of PLGA-collagen-gelatin (2:1:1 wt ratios) were mineralized in 10× modified simulated body fluid (10× mSBF) and cryocut to segments of 20 µm. For predetermined weights of the mineralized nanofiber segments, it was possible to load various amounts of heptaglutamate E7-domain-conjugated BMP-2 peptide. Mineralized short fiber grafts (2 mg), with and without E7-BMP-2 peptides, were implanted into 2 mm × 2 mm (diameter × depth) critical-sized socket defects created in rat maxillae, following extraction of the first molar teeth. A sustained release profile of E7-BMP-2 from the mineralized nanofiber segments was recorded over 4 weeks. X-ray microcomputed tomography (µ-CT) analysis of peptide-loaded nanofiber graft filled defects revealed ∼3 times greater new bone volume and bone mineral density over 4 weeks in comparison to unfilled control defects. Further, histopathology data confirmed the formation of greater new osseous tissue in the BMP2 peptide-loaded, mineralized nanofiber segment group than that of fibrous connective tissue in the unfilled defect group. Altogether, the mineralized nanofiber segments coupled with E7-BMP-2 peptides may be an effective treatment option for alveolar bone loss and defects. Statement of Significance: With the high incidence of dental implants/fixtures for missing teeth, the success of the surgical procedures in restorative dentistry is dictated by the quality and quantity of the supporting alveolar bone. To address the problem of alveolar bone loss and defects due to tumor, periodontitis, or even postextraction remodeling, the present study is the first report on the application of mineralized nanofiber fragments coupled with calcium-binding osteoinductive BMP-2 peptides as a synthetic graft material for oral bone regeneration. The ease of fabrication and application of cryocut mineralized nanofiber fragments as maxillofacial bone defect fillers present a promising alternative to the current dental bone graft formulations. Furthermore, the nanofiber segments may also be utilized for several biomedical applications including hemostasis, soft tissue engineering, and wound healing.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)282-293
Number of pages12
JournalActa Biomaterialia
Volume85
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2019

Keywords

  • Alveolar bone regeneration
  • E7-BMP-2 peptides
  • Electrospinning
  • Mineralization
  • Nanofiber segments

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Biomaterials
  • Biochemistry
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Molecular Biology

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